What is Fullerene?
A fullerene is any molecule composed of carbon, in the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, tube, and many other shapes. Spherical fullerenes are also called buckyballs, and they resemble the balls used in football (soccer). Cylindrical ones are called as buckytubes. Fullerenes are similar in structure to graphite, which is composed of stacked graphene sheets of linked hexagonal rings; but they may also contain pentagonal (or sometimes heptagonal) rings.
What is Graphene?
Graphene is a one-atom-thick sheet of carbon atoms in a honeycomb crystal lattice (hexagons). Graphene is pure carbon in the form of a
very thin, nearly transparent sheet, one atom thick. It is remarkably strong for its very low weight (100 times stronger than steel) and it
conducts heat and electricity with great efficiency. While scientists had theorized about graphene for decades, it was first produced in the lab
in 2004. Because it is virtually two-dimensional, it interacts oddly with light and with other materials. Researchers have identified the bipolar
transistor effect, ballistic transport of charges and large quantum oscillations.
Graphene is the building-block of Graphite (used in pencil tips) and it has some amazing
properties - it's considered the world's strongest and thinnest material, and it's also
conductive, transparent and flexible.